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在AQA的物理中,GCSE阶段能量部分需要了解的词汇

本文出处:GCSE辅导 发布时间:2019-01-31 15:54:25 字体大小: A+ A-

Big Bang  大爆炸

 

The scientific theory that describes the early development of the Universe.

 

chemical energy化学能源

 

A type of stored energy. It is taken in when chemical bonds break, and given out when chemical bonds are made.

 

Comet彗星

 

A ball of icy rock that follows an elliptical orbit around the Sun.

 

conductor导体

 

A material which allows charge to move easily through it.

 

dissipated消散

 

The spreading out and transfer of energy stores into less useful forms, such as thermal energy causing the surroundings to heat up. Dissipated energy is often referred to as 'wasted' energy, since it is not transferred to a useful output.

 

dissipation耗散

 

The process of energy being transferred, or lost, to the surroundings.

 

elastic potential energy弹性势能

 

Energy stored in squashed, stretched or twisted materials.

 

electrical work电气工作

 

Energy transferred by an electric current.

 

Emitted发射

 

Energy is 'given-out' by the material and the internal energy of the material will decrease. For example, infrared radiation from the Sun is emitted into space.

 

energy能源

 

The capacity for doing work.

 

energy store能量存储

 

The different ways in which energy can be stored, including chemical, kinetic, gravitational potential, elastic potential and thermal stores.

 

energy transfer能量转移

 

The different ways in which energy can be transferred from one store to another includes heating, by waves, electric current or by a force moving an object.

 

friction摩擦

 

A force that opposes or prevents movement and converts kinetic energy into heat.

 

gravitational potential energy重力势能

 

The energy stored by an object lifted up against the force of gravity. Also known as GPE.

 

internal energy内能

 

The total kinetic energy and potential energy of the particles in an object.

 

kinetic energy动能

 

Energy which an object possesses by being in motion.

 

lubricant滑润剂

 

A lubricant is anything which reduces the friction between two surfaces.

 

molecule分子

 

A collection of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

 

potential difference潜在差异

The potential difference (or voltage) of a supply is a measure of the energy given to the charge carriers in a circuit. Units = volts (V). This is the voltage between two points that makes an electric current flow between them.

 

radiation辐射

 

Energy transferred as a wave spreading out from a source - eg light, infrared, sound.

 

system系统

 

An object or group of objects.

 

transfer传递

When something is moved from one place to another. This may be people, objects or energy.

 

Van de Graaff generator范德格拉夫发电机

 

A machine that causes friction between a rubber belt and plastic rollers in order to build up electrical charge on a metal dome. A large potential difference is generated.

 

vibrations振动

 

Repeated movements back and forth (about a fixed point).

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